Pre-construction Culvert : Rational options to connect the road

The fastest structure to build:

1. Nestable Flange & MPPA

Note for steel plate culvert like NF and MPPA, it not suitable for acid and salty water. Also it need maintenance periodicaly to prevent rusted

2. Precast concrete culvert (round & box)

Note for this type is we need heavy equipment / supporting tools to load and unload to site.


Land Application

Land application used to convey POME from palm oil mill to land (block). POME BOD  value that can used for LA maximum 5.000. Capacity for LA area/years is 750 Ton. If the rainfall and soil absorbtion condition is normal, my calculation show the land needed is 5 Ha/TPH mill capacity.

Design needed :

  1. Flatbed dimeension and overflow gutter, depend on the countour and soil conditions.
  2. Pumps capacity and head, calculate using distance and volume
  3. Piping selection diameter and materials.


Loging bridges

Why Loging Bridges Need?

When a plantations company starting the bussines, they preparing the land before plant any tree on it. Block system now commonly used as separating line and have many benefit. This line ussualy formed as access road.

Access road in thousands hectares have so many point crossing the water line. In the begining we use loging bridges as temporary construction. The construction using residual wood from land clearing, so this construction have no material cost. Loging bridges as temporary construction should be replaced by permanent construction like concrete bridges, box culvert or steel bridges before aged 5 years. After 5 years wood conditions would be very weak. The life design of loging bridges match with palm tree that starting to harvest in 3 years. It means that the bridges will handling more load frequently.

The Designs

There are two main part of the bridges :

1) Bridge Foundations

Foundations for loging bridges also using wood. There are two common type of log foundations :

a. Pig Head Foundations

Log formations by set wood in 3 side, front river and 2 side as high as road level. This type of foundations will be strong enough to hold the soil pressure from behind tthe structure, also can reduce the water stream from collapsing the bridge.

b. Wood Pile Foundations

In this type of foundations bridge deck put on some wood pile.


2. Bridge deck

Bridge deck using log put and arranged in horizontal positions together. Soil layer used as finishing touch to binding the log and provide smooth surfaces for truck passes the bridges.



The constructions need excavators. Time to complete this work depend on the length of bridges and depth of the river. One week is a fair average time. You can estimate cost by calculate HM of heavy equipment.